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Favela Brasilien Navigationsmenu VideoDer Kampf gegen die Drogenmafia: Die Welt der Favelas - Abenteuer Leben - Kabel Eins
I början av talet beräknades ungefär hälften av befolkningen i de brasilianska storstäderna bo i favelor. Det är inte överdrivet att kalla favelorna för "städer i staden"; de är i sin organisation i stor utsträckning oberoende av den officiella stadsförvaltningen och kontrolleras ofta av knarkgäng.
The government moved in to force the migrants out and into more adequate housing in "proletarian parks," but the initiative failed to eradicate the settlements.
During the s, the government again tried to wipe out the favelas, particularly ones near popular tourist destinations.
While some of them were eliminated, others only expanded after displaced people moved in. Today, there are an estimated 1, favelas in Rio, and they are home to about 1.
The favelas are diverse — some have rudimentary infrastructure, while others have homes hooked up to electricity with phones and computers.
With so many people living in packed and illegal tenements, the communities have become a hotbed for crime and drugs. Many are ruled by drug lords who traffic cocaine and encourage gang violence.
The government, however, has embedded military police units to help crack down on illegal activity. The Oscar-nominated film, "City of God," brought the ramshackle conditions of favelas to a wider audience.
The film takes place in Rio's Cidade de Deus favela — the same community that President Barack Obama visited in Two years later, Pope Francis visited the Varginha favela, telling residents of the majority Catholic nation that "you are not alone.
Poor public planning and insufficient investment by the government led to the disintegration of these projects into new favelas. By the s, worries about eviction and eradication were beginning to give way to violence associated with the burgeoning drug trade.
Changing routes of production and consumption meant that Rio de Janeiro found itself as a transit point for cocaine destined for Europe.
Although drugs brought in money, they also accompanied the rise of the small arms trade and of gangs competing for dominance.
While drug dealing, sporadic gun fights, and residual control from drug lords remain in certain areas, Rio's political leaders point out that the UPP is a new paradigm after decades without a government presence in these areas.
Most of the current favelas really expanded in the s, as a construction boom in the more affluent districts of Rio de Janeiro initiated a rural exodus of workers from poorer states in Brazil.
Since then, favelas have been created under different terms but with similar end results. Communities form in favelas over time and often develop an array of social and religious organizations and forming associations to obtain such services as running water and electricity.
Sometimes the residents manage to gain title to the land and then are able to improve their homes.
Because of crowding, unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition and pollution, disease is rampant in the poorer favelas and infant mortality rates are high.
In addition, favelas situated on hillsides are often at risk from flooding and landslides. In the late 19th century, the state gave regulatory impetus for the creation of Rio de Janeiro's first squatter settlement.
The simultaneous immigration of White Europeans to the city in this period generated strong demand for housing near the water and the government responded by "razing" the slums and relocating the slum dwellers to Rio's north and south zones Oliveira , pp.
This was the beginning of almost a century of aggressive eradication policies that characterised state-sanctioned interventions. Favelas in the early twentieth century were considered breeding grounds for anti-social behavior and spreading of disease.
The issue of honor pertaining to legal issues was not even considered for residents of the favelas. After a series of comments and events in the neighborhood of Morro da Cyprianna, during which a local woman Elvira Rodrigues Marques was slandered, the Marques family took it to court.
This is a significant change in what the public considered the norm for favela residents, who the upper classes considered devoid of honor all together.
Following the initial forced relocation, favelas were left largely untouched by the government until the s. During this period politicians, under the auspice of national industrialisation and poverty alleviation, pushed for high density public housing as an alternative to the favelas Skidmore In spite of the political assertions of Rio's Mayor Henrique Dodsworth, the new public housing estates were never built and the once-temporary housing alternatives began to grow into new and larger favelas Oliveira The mass urban migration to Rio de Janeiro in the s resulted in the proliferation of favelas across the urban terrain.
In order to deal with the "favela problem" Portes , pp. According to Anthony , some of the most brutal favela removals in Rio de Janeiro's history occurred during this period.
The military regime of the time provided limited resources to support the transition and favelados struggled to adapt to their new environments that were effectively ostracised communities of poorly built housing, inadequate infrastructure and lacking in public transport connections Portes Perlman points to the state's failure in appropriately managing the favelas as the main reason for the rampant violence, drugs and gang problems that ensued in the communities in the following years.
The creation of BOPE Special Police Operations Battalion in was the government's response to this violence Pino BOPE, in their all black military ensemble and weaponry, was Rio's attempt to confront violence with an equally opposing entity.
In the s and early s, public policy shifted from eradication to preservation and upgrading of the favelas.
The "Favela-Bairro" program, launched in , sought to improve living standards for the favelados Pamuk and Cavallieri The program provided basic sanitation services and social services, connected favelas to the formal urban community through a series of street connections and public spaces and legalised land tenure Pamuk and Cavallieri Aggressive intervention, however, did not entirely disappear from the public agenda.
The UPP is a law enforcement and social services program aimed at reclaiming territories controlled by drug traffickers. In , the state government unveiled a new police force whose rough translation is Pacifying Police Unit UPP.
By October , UPPs have been established in 28 favelas, with the stated goal of Rio's government to install 40 UPPs by The establishment of a UPP within a favela is initially spearheaded by Rio de Janeiro's elite police battalion, BOPE , in order to arrest or drive out gang leaders.
After generally securing an area of heavy weapons and large drug caches, and establishing a presence over several weeks to several months, the BOPE are then replaced by a new Pacifying Police Unit composed of hundreds of newly trained policemen, who work within a given favela as a permanent presence aimed at community policing.
Suspicion toward the police force is widespread in the favelas, so working from within is a more effective and efficient means of enacting change.
A report by the World Organization Against Torture OMCT did note the drop in the homicide rate within Rio de Janeiro's favelas.
The report also pointed to the importance of initiatives that combine public security with intra-favela initiatives. Community policing was at the cornerstone of public policy during the early s and its combination with participatory planning characterised the most recent rounds of state policy.
Media outlets have been critical of this change in policy and believe its only reflective of the government's concerns of the large media attention Rio attracted during the FIFA World Cup McLoughlin and the Olympic Games Griffin Die Bezeichnung kommt von einer brasilianischen Kletterpflanze, welche den Namen Favela trägt.
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